Cleft Sentenses Konusunda Açıklama

1 –  Proficiency Sınavı ( Proficiency Sınavı için Bireysel – Özel Ders )
2 –  Proficiency Sınavı ( Proficiency Sınavı için 4 kişilik Gruplarla Ders )

A sentence which is divided into two parts to add emphasis to the first element is called a cleft sentence.

There are three types of cleft sentences :

Type 1 :  Cleft sentences beginning it is / was + adjective clause :
It was Hakan, not me who robbed the bank.

= Hakan robbed the bank, not me / I.

Type 2 : Beginning with it is / was + prepositional phrase :
It was on T.V that she first saw the news.
prep. phr.

= She first saw the news on T.V.

Type 3 : Beginning with what / all + subject + do / did + to be + the rest of the sentence :
All / What she does is eat chocolate.
= She eats chocolate.

NOTE : All  is slightly more emphatic than  what  but they  are used in a similar way.


Exercise 1 . Rewrite these sentences, using the word (s) on phrase underlined after it is + was an adjective clause to make cleft sentences.

1 ) Ahmet  broket he window, not I.
a . It was Ahmet who broket he window, not I.
b . It was Ahmet, not I, who broket he window.
2 ) Erdal went to Germany, not Erol.
3 ) I invited Maria to Turkey, not her family.
4 ) Anne visited me on Friday, not Saturday.
5 ) I bought a Skoda car first, not a Murat car.
6 ) I use a computer to write a book, not a typewriter.
7 ) We have to pay the rent at the beginning of each month, not the end.
8 ) Christopher Columbus discovered America, not Magellan.
9 ) İstanbul was the capital city of the Ottoman Empire, not Ankara.
10 ) Şinasi wrote the book Şair Evlenmesi, not the Fiddler on the roof.
11 ) Erden studied tourism at university, not my twins.

Using cleft sentences to ephasis time expressions

It was + time expression + when – clause

 The most usual word order in an English sentence is : Subject + verb + object + complement, but we can emphasis different elements by changing the word order. A time expression can be emphasised by the word order shown above :

It was late when I locked my door last night.
time clause
= I locked my door late last night.

Using cleft sentences to emphasis time expressions

It was nine o’clock when Turksat was launched.
           time clause
= Turkey launced Turksat at nine o’clock this evening.
This structure adds strength and immediacy to narrative, for example, story – telling and news – reporting.


Proficiency Sınavı

Exercise 2. Rewrite these sentences according to this pattern for increased emphasis on the time element. Use it was + time expression + when – clause.

1 ) The exam began at 9 o’clock.
It was 9 o’clock when the exam began.
2 ) Fire broke out on the Galata Bridge at five o’clock this morning.
3 ) The earthquake shook the city at 11.10 in the evening.
4 ) There was a power cut at 6 p.m this evening.
5 ) The train crash occured at exactly 3 o’clock in the afternoon.
6 ) The storm died down at dawn.
7 ) He telephoned me in the middle of the night.
8 ) She got up at around half – past ten in the morning.
9 ) Atatürk, the founder of the Turkish Republic, died at 9.05 a.m.
10 ) The murderer finished disposing of the body late last night.

CLEFT SENTENCESExercise 3  . Complete B, using a noun, place or time clause beginning with It was + preposition.

1 ) a . She first met him at the cinema.
b . It was at the cinema that she first met him.
2 ) a . I first learnt to drive in France.
b . ……………………………………..
3 ) a . He remembered then he’d left th car unlocked.
b. ………………………………………
4 ) a . He saw her yesterday.
b . …………………………………..
5 ) a . She lost her ring in the kitchen.
b. ………………………………………..
6 ) a . When he met the teacher, his life changed.
b. …………………………………………