Relative Pronouns (İlgeç Zamirleri )

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The use of relative pronouns in adjective clauses

A chair is a thing which we sit on. ( less formal ) A chair is a thing we sit on. ( informal ) This is the bus whose driver drives like a maniac. ( possesive – less formal ) This is the bus of which the air conditioning doesnt work. ( possesive – formal )

Kinds of adjective clauses

Adjective clauses can be classified according to the function of the relative pronoun in the clause.


Adjective clauses whose relative pronouns are used as a subject.

                           subject The police arrested the robbers. They robbed the bank. The police arrested the robbers who robbed the bank.

                               subject They killed the dog. It had rabies. They killed the dog which had rabies.

In the examples , you see that the adjective clauses begin with who or which. An adjective clause whose subject is who or which has the same meanings as th Turkish verbs which can be made into adjectives by using the Turkish suffix – en or – an such as ‘ gelen adam , çalışan çocuk.

NOTE : Pay attention to the fact that , who stands for the subject they ( referring to the robbers ) ; which represents the subject it ( referring to the dog. ) when the relative pronoun is in the subject position , it cant be omitted.


Relative Pronouns ( İlgeç Zamirleri )


Adjective clauses whose relative pronouns are used as an object

                                                object I want to see the doctor. You recommended him. I want to see the doctor who ( m ) you recommended.                                                 object

              object I posted the letter. I wrote it yesterday. I posted the letter which I wrote yesterday.                                   object

As you see in the examples , whom and which are the objects of the adjective clauses. An adjective clause whose object is whom or which has the same meaning as the Turkish verbs derived by using the suffix – dık : aldığım mektup , gördüğüm adam. Whom is the object form of the relative pronoun who. It is rarely used in speech. In written English it may be considered more correct than whoWhom is often used with a preposition. If whom is used , the proposition comes before it : If who is used , the preposition comes at the end of the sentences.

Adjective clauses whose relative pronouns are used as an object NOTE : Pay attention to the fact that who ( m ) stands for the object him and which represents the object it referring to the letter. The relative pronoun can often be omitted if it is the object of the sentence.

Adjective clauses beginning with ‘ who ‘ or ‘ which ‘ Read this newspaper extract , looking at the use of the adjective clauses in bold. Boy Bites Dog

Relative Pronouns (İlgeç Zamirleri )The people who were waiting for the 5 o ‘ clock İzmir bus saw something which they will probably never forget. Suddenly a large dog that had been quietly sleeping on the pavement woke up , started growling for no apparent reason , and began to attack a small boy who was cleaning shoes nearby. Everyone thought that the dog must have had rabies. People screamed in horror and one man who was very brave tried to grab the dog by its tail. However , they needn’t have worried. The small shoeshine boy who had once been a shepherd boy was used to fierce dogs. He was more than a match for the animal. The bot bit a piece of f the dogs ear. The dog which was by then covered in blood quickly ran away. The police who promptly came on the scene later found the dog and shot it. Veterinary surgeons carried out tests which confirmed that the dog did not have rabies.

Exercise  1. Answer these questions from the reading passage. 1 ) What did the dog do ? 2 ) What did a man try to do ? 3 ) What did the boy do ? 4 ) What did the police do ? 5 ) Did the dog have rabies ?