Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency Sınavı Hazırlık Programı
1 – Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency Sınavı Hazırlık ( Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency Sınavı Hazırlık için Bireysel – Özel Ders )
2 – Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency Sınavı Hazırlık ( Işık Üniversitesi Proficiency Sınavı Hazırlık için 4 kişilik Gruplarla Ders )
Part three of the exam is another reading exercise. Follow the same instruction
as the first reading. (This should take 50 minutes.)
READING PRACTICE – Obesity
1 Over one-half of all Americans (about 97 million) are overweight or obese. Obesity is a
condition of excess body fat. It is the most common form of malnutrition in the Western
world. A person is considered obese if he or she weighs at least 20 percent more than the
maximum healthy weight for his or her height. About three in 10 people in the United States are obese, and the condition is becoming increasingly common.
2 In scientific terms, obesity occurs when a person consumes more calories than he or she
burns. What causes this imbalance between calories in and calories out may differ from one
person to another. Genetic, environmental, psychological, and other factors may all play a
3 Obesity tends to run in families, suggesting a genetic cause. Yet families also share diet and lifestyle habits that may contribute to obesity. Separating these from genetic factors is often difficult. Even so, science shows that heredity is linked to obesity. In one scientific study, adults who were adopted as children were found to have weights closer to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents. In this case, the person’s genetic makeup had more influence on the development of obesity than the environment in the adoptive family home.
However, genes do not destine people to a lifetime of obesity. Environment also strongly
influences obesity. This includes lifestyle behaviors such as what a person eats and his or her level of physical activity. Americans tend to eat high-fat foods, and put taste and convenience ahead of nutrition. Also, most Americans do not get enough physical activity.
4 Although you cannot change your genetic makeup, you can change your eating habits and
levels of activity. Try some techniques that have helped some people lose weight. For
example, learn how to choose more nutritious meals that are lower in fat. Try to recognize and control environmental cues (like inviting smells) that make you want to eat when you’re not hungry. Become more physically active. Keep records of your food intake and physical activity.
5 Psychological factors also play a role in eating habits. Many people eat in response to
negative emotions such as boredom, sadness, or anger. Yet, most overweight people have no more psychological problems than people of average weight. Still, up to 10 percent of people who are mildly obese and try to lose weight on their own or through commercial weight loss programs have binge-eating disorder. This disorder is even more common in people who are severely obese. During a binge-eating episode, people eat large amounts of food and feel that they cannot control how much they are eating. Those with the most severe binge-eating problems are also likely to have symptoms of depression and low self-esteem. These people may have more difficulty losing weight and keeping it off than people without binge-eating problems. If you are upset by binge-eating behavior and think you might have binge-eating disorder, you should seek help from a health professional such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, or clinical social worker.
6 Obesity is more than a cosmetic problem; it is a health hazard. Approximately 280,000 adult deaths in the United States each year are related to obesity. Several serious medical
conditions have been linked to obesity, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood
pressure, and strokes. Of all obesity-related diseases, diabetes is most clearly and strongly
associated with obesity. Obesity is also linked to higher rates of certain types of cancer.
Obese men are more likely than non-obese men to die from cancer of the colon, rectum, or
prostate. Obese women are more likely than non-obese women to die from cancer of the
gallbladder, breast, uterus, cervix, or ovaries.
7 Obesity causes many health problems due to the strain it puts on organs and joints. Health care providers generally agree that obesity contributes to premature mortality. If you are overweight or obese, carrying the extra weight puts you at risk for developing these diseases and losing this weight helps to prevent and control them.
8 Obesity can also have major psychological effects on people. Emotional suffering may be one of the most painful parts of obesity. Western societies emphasize physical appearance and often equate attractiveness with slimness, especially for women. Such messages make overweight people feel unattractive. Also, many people think that obese individuals are gluttonous, lazy, or both, even though this is not true. As a result, obese people often face prejudice or discrimination in the job market, at school, and in social situations. Feelings of rejection, shame, or depression are common among obese people.
9 Some people lose weight on their own; others like the support of a structured program. Overweight people who are successful at losing weight, and keeping it off, can reduce their risk factors for heart disease. If you decide to join any kind of weight control program, there are some things to consider before you join. It is important to note that no diet or weight loss formula works independently of an eating plan based on the dietary guidelines given by the nutrition and health institutes. So if you are obese, throw away all those “special formulas”, supplements, and pills, stop eating more calories than you need, become more physically active and adopt a healthy eating plan.
10 First of all, the program should provide counseling to help you change your eating activity, and personal habits. It should teach you how to change permanently those eating habits and lifestyle factors, such as lack of physical activity that have contributed to weight gain. The staff should be made up of a variety of qualified counselors and health professionals such as nutritionists, registered dieticians, doctors, nurses, psychologists, and exercise physiologists. Food choices should be flexible and suitable. Weight goals should be set by the health professional. The program should consider your food likes and dislikes and your lifestyle when your weight loss goals are planned. Finally, it should provide training on how to deal with times when you may feel stressed and slip back to old habits.